Journal of Dermatology and Pigmentation Research

Tracing Scientific Publications of Dermatology Referred from Turkey Based on PubMed Search

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Published Date: December 19, 2017

Tracing Scientific Publications of Dermatology Referred from Turkey Based on PubMed Search

Ozyurt Kemal1*, Ertas R1, Ozlu E2, Avci A1, Atasoy M1

1Health Science University, Kayseri Health Training, and Research Center, Dermatology Clinic, Kayseri, Turkey

2Duzce University, Medical Faculty, Department of Dermatology, Duzce, Turkey

*Corresponding author: Kemal ÖZYURT, University of Health Science, Kayseri Health Training and Research Center, Dermatology and Venereology Clinic, Sanayi Mah. Atatürk Bulvari Hastane Cad. No: 78, 38010. Kocasinan, Kayseri, Turkey, Tel: 90-352-336-8888;  Fax: 90-352-336-8857; E-mail:  kemal.ozyurt1@saglik.gov.tr      

Citation: Ozyurt K, Ertas R, Ozlu E, Avci A, Atasoy M (2017) Tracing Scientific Publications of Dermatology Referred from Turkey Based on PubMed Search. J Derma Pigm Res 1(1): 109.

 

Abstract

 

Objective: Recently, significant improvements were seen in dermatology all over the world concerned new drugs and biological agents, medical devices and imaging methods. New developments in daily clinical practice closely related to scientific progress. Scientific publications like clinical phase trials (CTP) and randomized clinical trials (RCT) suppose scientific and technological substructure. Emerging economies are dominant in science and innovation. But, how are the perfections and long-term impacts of their activities? Turkey has a developing and exceptional emerging economy on the world economic scale and uses advanced technological products in medicine. It is worthwhile to investigate scientific publications in Dermatology referred from Turkey.

Method: Twelve countries included in the study according to their populations and with high numbers of qualified publications. China, India, USA, and Indonesia are the most crowded populations of the world, respectively. Population ranking results locate Turkey’s population as; Congo, Germany, Turkey, Iran, and Thailand in a descending order. And Japan, France, UK, USA, and Germany are the top five countries with higher numbers of qualified publications in the world. The Human Development Index (HDI) was used in this study, consisted of outcomes of health care and welfare, level of literacy and etc. PubMed was used for searching scientific publications between 01.01.2011 to 31.12.2016.

Results: Number of case reports referred from the countries were China: 184, India: 190, USA: 288, Indonesia: 2, Japan: 1777, Congo: 3, Germany: 184, Turkey: 118, Iran: 17, Thailand: 8, France: 407 and UK: 117. Number of CTP were, China: 5, India: 0, USA: 37, Indonesia: 0, Japan: 25, Congo: 0, Germany: 49, Turkey: 3, Iran: 0, Thailand: 0, France: 54 and UK: 17. RCT were China: 25, India: 5, USA: 40, Indonesia: 0, Japan: 61, Congo: 0, Germany: 87, Turkey: 4, Iran: 13, Thailand: 11, France: 87 and UK: 53. Germany was the first country of all countries in this study for the highest number of CTP and RCT and also a total of all studies. Turkey was the 7th and 10th in order of CTP and RCT, respectively. Turkey was the 6th and 7th in selected 12 countries according to the total count of all scientific publications and HDI, respectively.

Conclusion: Conflictive results were seen between quantity and quality of scientific publications and countries’ level of development. Countries with low HDI but higher number and quality of scientific publications were observed and vice versa. Based on data of dermatology, Turkey was lower in the impact of scientific publications in conformity with HDI. Similar findings were obtained in the top five medical sciences for Turkey. This finding may be investigated in all aspects to increase the quality of dermatology science in Turkey.

Keywords: Dermatology; Turkey; Scientific publication

 

Introduction

 

Publications on medical science connect clinical and basic scientific data with daily clinical practice and also, improve medical science. Study patterns and procedures are the main instruments of researches and publications. Objective and implicit of scientific publications generate primary or secondary research. Primary research area consisted of basic medical research, clinical research, and epidemiological research. Publications in the primary research included; clinical study (CS), clinical trial phase (CTP) 1–4, observational study (OS), evaluation study (ES) and randomized controlled trial (RCT). Secondary research evaluates studies performed in the primary research area and reports them as review and meta-analyze (MA). Case report (CS), represent simply a clinical observation. Scientific value or level of best evidence of publications increase from CR to CS, RCT, and MA [1–3].

Primary research in medical science exhibit scientific progress and closely related to advances in technology and knowledge. Scientific publications like CS, CTP1-4, OS, ES, RCT suppose scientific and technological substructure. Higher quantity and quality of publications as CS, CTP1-4, OS, ES, RCT may lead a patent, a new device in treatment or diagnosis of disease or a new molecule. These publications are significant indicators of social and economic developments of the referred country [4].

Recently, significant improvements were seen in dermatology all over the world concerned new drugs and biological agents, medical devices and imaging methods. In the current study, we analyzed medical literature in the field of Dermatology represented in types of CR, CS, CTP1-4, OS, ES, RCT and MA, in our country, Turkey. Turkey has a developing and exceptional emerging economy on the world economic scale and uses advanced technological products in medicine. We aimed to deliver the scientific value of literature of Dermatology in Turkey.

 

Material and Methods

 

Twelve countries were included in the study based on their populations and numbers of qualified scientific publications. China, India, USA, and Indonesia are the most crowded populations of the world, respectively. Population ranking results locate Turkey’s population as; Congo, Germany, Turkey, Iran, and Thailand in a descending order [5]. And Japan, France, UK, USA, and Germany are the first five countries with higher numbers of qualified publications in the world [6]. The Human Development Index (HDI) is accepted to be the ultimate criteria for assessing development results of countries according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) was used in this study [7,8]. HDI consisted of outcomes of health care and welfare, level of literacy and etc. Based on HDI countries classified as undeveloped, emergent and developed [9].

PubMed is one of the current biomedical databases (http://www.pubmed.gov) for free access to the largest biomedical resource. Functional researches focused on unique questions are practicable in PubMed with quick and efficient manner [10,11].

Countries; China, India, USA, Indonesia, Japan, Congo, Germany, Turkey, Iran, Thailand, France, and the UK were included in the study. Four countries; China, India, USA, Indonesia, were included for the reason of being the first four countries in order of countries with the highest population of the world. Congo, Germany, Iran, and Thailand were included for the reason that population of Turkey was in the middle of these four countries in order of census (5). And Japan, France, UK, USA, and Germany are the in the first five countries with higher numbers of qualified publications in the world,

PubMed, through the address of a website; http://www.pubmed.gov, was used for queries. The searching process was performed entering key, consisting of words "Turkey and Dermatology”. The same search performed for all countries respectively, countries included; China, India, USA, Indonesia, Congo, Germany, Iran, and Thailand. The publication date of articles was between 01.01.2011 to 31.12.2016. Article types which were searched consisted of CR, CS, CTP1-4, OS, RCT, MA, Clinical Trials (CT) and review (R). For every country, results of query include; total number of articles according to each article styles mentioned above and country of the first author of the article. We investigated the number, disease which is subject of the article and as well as the subject of CTP, RCT, OS, and ES for each country.

Furthermore, information about medical scientific publications; in all fields of medical science, a number of publications, number citations and citation index of were referred from the website of Turkey, Tubitak Ulakbim Cahit Arif Bilgi Merkezi (CABIM). CABIM give the opportunity to search medical scientific publications China, India, USA, Indonesia, Japan, Germany, Turkey, Iran, France, and UK, during 2010-2015. Unfortunately, CABIM included medical scientific publications of 54 countries but not Congo and Thailand [6].

 

Results

 

Population of China, India, USA, Indonesia, Japan, Congo, Germany, Turkey, Iran, Thailand, France and UK were; 1379820000, 1,330780000, 324911000, 260581000, 127561489, 85026000, 81459000, 78741053, 77176930, 67367943, 65689689 and 63612729 respectively. Rate of country population to the total world population were 18.5%, 17.8%, 4.35%, 3.49%, 1.69%, 1.05%, 1.05%, 1.06%, 1.01%, 0.91%, 0.875% and 0.71% respectively (Table 1). HDI of countries, included in this study, were also listed in table 1.

In-country based publications, number of CRs; China: 184, India: 190, USA: 288, Indonesia: 2, Japan: 1777, Congo: 3, Germany: 184, Turkey: 118, Iran: 17, Thailand: 8, France: 407 and UK: 117. Number of CTPs; China: 5, India: 0, USA: 37, Indonesia: 0, Japan: 25, Congo: 0, Germany: 49, Turkey: 3, Iran: 0, Thailand: 0, France: 54 and UK: 17. RCTs were China: 25, India: 5, USA: 40, Indonesia: 0, Japan: 61, Congo: 0, Germany: 87, Turkey: 4, Iran: 13, Thailand: 11, France: 87 and UK: 53. The number of article types according to the countries was introduced in table 1. Distributions of CTP, RCT, CT, OS, CS, MA, R and CR were calculated (Table 1). Germany was the first country of all countries in this study for the highest number of CTP and RCT and also a total of all studies. Turkey was the 7th and 10th in order of CTP and RCT, respectively. And according to the total count of all studies, Turkey was the 7th in selected 12 countries (Table 1).

CABIM data demonstrated a number of publications and citations and also impact factors of 46 countries, in all fields of medical sciences, during 2010–2015. Dermatology was not included in the first 20 fields of medical sciences with a higher number of publications. Table 2 shows the first five fields of medical sciences with a number of publications and citations and also impact factors. Biochemistry-Molecular Biology, Oncology, Neurosciences, Surgery and Clinical Neurology are the first five fields of medical sciences in order of publications (Table 2).

CABIM data revealed a number of publications and citations and also impact factors, in Dermatology, during 2010–2015, referred from China, India, USA, Japan, Germany, Turkey, Iran, France and UK (Table 3). According to impact factors, U.K. was the first and Turkey was the last country among the nine countries listed in table 3.

As summarized in table 3 number of publications and citations and also impact factors of the first five fields of medical sciences referred from China, India, USA, Japan, Germany, Turkey, Iran, France, and the UK. As in Dermatology, Turkey is the last in all Biochemistry-Molecular Biology, Oncology, Neurosciences, Surgery and Clinical Neurology. The USA is the first in Oncology, Neurosciences, Surgery as in Dermatology. Germany which is the second country in Dermatology is the first in Biochemistry-Molecular Biology and Clinical Neurology (Table 3). A number of publications, citations and impact factors in descending order of 46 countries during 2010–2015, in the field of Dermatology were demonstrated in table 4.

Distributions CTP and RCT for each country as being the first author from own country (FAOC) or first author from a different country (FADC) were evaluated in the current study (Table 5). As in table 6 and table 7, it shows the distribution of related subjects and concerned diseases of CTP and RCT according to 12 selected countries respectively. The subject of diseases and related issues of CTP and RCT were listed in table 8. The most frequent disease of trials in all study was psoriasis (101 of 214). Psoriasis, cosmetic disorders, atopic dermatitis, malign melanoma, and malign skin diseases are the first five subjects of publications in the list. Topical drugs, systemic drugs, biological agents, laser treatment and cosmetics are the first five in the list of related issues of the trials (Table 8).

 

Discussion

 

The HDI is accepted to be the ultimate criteria for assessing development results of countries according to UNDP [7,8]. Based on HDI countries classified as undeveloped, emergent and developed [9]. In our study, five countries with higher HDI values (0,914–0,897) were USA, Germany, UK, Japan, and France, respectively. As summarized in table 1, during 2011–2016, according to total and RCT publications in Dermatology, the order of these countries was; Germany, Japan, USA, France and UK and Germany, Japan, USA, France, and UK, respectively. Germany was the second country in order of HDI but, it was first in order of both total numbers of publications and RCT. Contrary, UK was the third in HDI but, 8th in total and 7th in RCT publications. Similarly, China was 8th in HDI order but third in total and 6th in RCT publications. Also, India was 11th in HDI order but, 5th and 8th in order of total and RCT publications respectively. Turkey was the 6th developed country among 12 countries included the current study. However, in total and RCT publications of Dermatology, it was 7th and 10th, respectively (Table 1). This means conflictive results may exist between number and quality of scientific publications and countries’ level of development. The current study did not search the reasons for these conflictive results. We thought to identify this; allocated money from the budget for scientific research, scientific competency of researcher, economic and social environment must be investigated. Also, it is important to know the positive and negative impacts that direct researcher, independent from the countries’ level of development.

The current study investigated CR cited in PubMed in 2015 and 2016, referred from 12 countries including Turkey. Japan was the first with the highest number of CRs and Turkey was the 5th (Table 1). Interestingly, Germany had 325 CPT and RCT and 695 CR, Turkey had 40 CPT and RCT but 486 CR. In other words, Germany had 285 more CPT and RCT but only, 109 more CR than Turkey. Also, India has 54 CPT and RCT but had 832 CR. CR is a comprehensive report of the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a patient and may contain novel and valuable data that informs both clinical research and our daily clinical care. However, CR is generally with low impact and scientific power and is not required scientific and technological substructure [12]. CTP and RCT have been a cornerstone in advancing medical literature. These trials are expensive, labor intensive and require significant resource utilization and must be performed in developing countries which lead unique scientific progress [13,14].

Another issue is the comparison of number and type of scientific publications in dermatology and other fields of medical science. Table 2 identifies the top five medical sciences, according to the number of publications and citations, the percentage of cited publication and impact factors, during 2010–2015. Table 3 shows a number of publications and citations and impact factors of China, India, USA, Japan, Germany, Turkey, Iran, France and UK in fields of dermatology and the first five medical sciences, during 2010–2015. The number of publications and citations and impact factors in dermatology were smaller than the other fields. This difference may explain with many aspects; main increasing interest in different branches of medical science, economic and social factors influencing research, and etc. Turkey had the same order in a number of publications and citations and impact factors in table 3. Table 4 demonstrates; 46 countries’ number of publications and citations and impact factors, in Dermatology, during 2010–2015. Turkey involved in 15th, 23rd and 40th order of a number of publications and citations and impact factors, respectively.

Table 5 summarized the distribution of CPT and RCT of 12 countries, during 2011–2016, according to affiliations of first authors. Turkey had 35 publications with own and five different country affiliations. Iran, Thailand and Indonesia had no different country affiliation. Congo had any own country affiliation. Also, Germany had 81, France 55, UK 33 and USA 33 different country affiliations. These countries also have higher self-affiliations. This finding may show increased collaboration of countries in performing scientific research, due to advanced development in science. Researcher mobility all over the world and collaboration among countries are increased. We observed the relationship between measures of scientific research collaboration and citation impact, particularly among countries with lower levels of scientific production, highlighting the importance of scale, which smaller economies attempt to overcome by participating more intensively in global networks [15].

Table 6 shows the distribution of main topics of CPT and RCT according to the 12 countries. The most frequent main topic of concern was biological agents. Topical and systemic drugs, laser treatment and cosmetics followed, respectively. Germany had 86 publications about biological agents and Turkey had only one. The most related main topic of CPT and RCT publications referred from Turkey were; topical and systemic drugs and cosmetics (Table 6). Recently, biological agents set the agenda in all medical science. Many targets of immunological pathways of diseases are determined. Biological agents give an opportunity to act against a specific target and improve the disease by the way. Performing CTP and RCT investigating biological need more advance in technology. In Dermatology, biological agents used to be in treatment increasingly. Table 8 summarized dermatological diseases related to main topics of CTP and RCT. CTP and RCT publications of biological agents mostly related to psoriasis, malign melanoma, atopic dermatitis, and malign skin diseases. Publications of topical drugs related to the precancerous disease, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and acne. Publications of systemic drugs related to psoriasis, connective tissue disorders, vascular skin diseases, malign melanoma, malign skin disease, and viral skin diseases. Other than, biologic and topical and systemic drugs, laser treatment, cosmetics, and herbal medicine were frequent main topics of CTP and RCT (Table 8). Turkey had five publications, with the type of CTP and RCT, related to acne, four each publication with viral skin disease, cosmetic disorders and psoriasis (Table 7).

As a result, conflictive results may exist between the quantity and quality of scientific publications and countries’ level of development. Countries with low HDI but higher number and quality of scientific publications were observed and vice versa. Based on the data of dermatology, Turkey was lower in the impact of scientific publications in conformity with HDI. Similar findings were obtained in the top five medical sciences for Turkey. This finding may be investigated in all aspects to increase the quality of dermatology science in Turkey.

 

Conflict of Interest

 

All the authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.  

 

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Copyright: © 2017 Ozyurt K, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.