Future Advanced Study of Thin Layers of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecule Nanostructure
Published Date: 11-03-2020
Future Advanced Study of Thin Layers of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecule Nanostructure
1Faculty of Chemistry, California South University, 14731 Comet St. Irvine, CA 92604, USA
2American International Standards Institute, Irvine, CA 3800, USA
*Corresponding author: Alireza Heidari, Faculty of Chemistry, California South University, 14731 Comet St. Irvine, CA 92604, USA; American International Standards Institute, Irvine, CA 3800, USA, Email: Scholar.Researcher.Scientist@gmail.com; Alireza.Heidari@calsu.us; Central@aisi-usa.org
Citation: Alireza H (2020) Future Advanced Study of Thin Layers of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecule Nanostructure. J Mol Nanot Nanom 2(1):110.
Thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule with various volumes of DNA/RNA acetate hybrid molecule solution (40, 50 and 70 ml) were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique over a glassy substrate. Samples were investigated using FESEM images, XRD and UV–Vis spectra as well as I–V characteristic. It was found that all samples were grown up with polycrystalline nanostructures along the preferred direction of (002). In addition, it was found that grew up sample in the volume of 50 (ml) are of optimum photoconductivity condition in visible range regarding optimum structural (largest crystallite size and lowest crystallite defect density) and optical (smallest band gap and highest light absorption) conditions.
DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructure .
Keywords: DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecule; Spray Pyrolysis Technique; Photoconductivity; Nanostructure; Visible Light
DNA/RNA hybrid molecule is one of the rare inherent semi–conductors of type P with a narrow band gap of about 1.2–2.1 (eV) which has a monoclinic structure with limited transparency in the region of visible light [1–11]. Thin layers of this material are frequently dark brown to black. This darkness is due to narrow band gap and direct transitions between bands [12–20]. This fact leads to high absorption of visible light and can be used in optical pieces such as solar cells. In addition, this material is considered due to abundance of raw material, non–toxicity, easy production and ability to change and optimizing its physical properties using various physical and chemical methods such as chemical vapor deposition [21–31], spray pyrolysis [32–43] and so on. This material is one of the important mineral Oxides for applying in pieces such as solar cells, electrochromic pieces and gaseous sensors due to its availability, high absorption rate and low cost [44–56]. In the current research, cost effective spray pyrolysis technique was used to investigate photoconductivity of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule thin layers with various volumes of spray solution.
To prepare thin layers of DNA/RNA acetate hybrid molecule powder was solved in deionized water and 0.15 (M)DNA/RNA acetate hybrid molecule solution was prepared. Then, this solution was sprayed over glassy substrate in various volumes (40, 50, 70 ml) – corresponding to samples of V1, V2, V3 – to prepare the considered layers. It is expected that in pyrolysis process, the following chemical reaction mechanism happens [57–63]:
During each step, cleaned substrates were heated up to 440º C in spray device and then, solution was sprayed under air pressure (1.1 bar). In this process, distance of sprays from substrates was 35 (cm). Structural analysis of samples was performed by X–Ray Diffraction device (XRD, Brucker AXS) with CuKα spectral line emission (1.5405 Å) and the surface morphology of samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM Hitachi S.4160). Optical characteristics of layers were measured using passed and absorbed spectra by optical spectroscopy (Shimadzu UV–Vis 1800) in the range of 300–1100 (nm).
Figure 1 shows SEM images of samples in the scales of 5 microns and 500 (nm). Although the images for V1 and V3 samples show uniform surface along with some grains with 50 and 100 (nm), respectively, V2 sample is of porous surface along with woven fibers and mud–like particles that differentiate it from two other sample.
Figure 1: SEM image of thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule for samples prepared in various volumes.
XRD spectrum of samples is shown in figure 2. Diffraction curves of samples indicate that they are of polycrystalline structure with monoclinic structure and principal planes of (002) and (111) located at angles of 35.56° and 38.74°. The results indicate that V2 sample with solution volume of 50 (ml) is of weaker peaks at directions of (202) and (020) at angles of 48.86° and 53.85°, respectively. The presence of these peaks along with relative intensity of the major peaks indicates that crystalline structure improves compared to other samples.
Figure 2: XRD spectrum of DNA/RNAhybrid moleculelayers with various volumes of solution.
For more accurate investigation of structural properties, crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and crystalline strains (ε) are calculated [64–76]:
where, β is half width at full maximum, D is crystallite size, θ is Brug angle and λ is X–Ray wavelength. Results of these calculations are listed in table 1.
Table 1: Calculated structural properties for the preferred peak (002).
Figure 3 shows optical passing spectrum of the under studied layers. It can be seen that in visible region of 400–700 (nm), V2 sample and V3 sample are of the lowest and highest passing, respectively. These variations may be largely due to relative electrical conductivity of layers (Section 4) which is effective is relative amount of metal–like and or insulator–like of layers.
Figure 3: Passing optical spectrum of DNA/RNAhybrid moleculethin layers grew up in various volumes.
According to the reported results, DNA/RNA hybrid molecule layers are acted as a semiconductor with direct transition between bands so that during these transitions, absorption coefficient is a function of incident photon energy [77–93]. Figure 4 shows the variations of absorption spectra of layers against wavelength.
Figure 4: Absorption spectrum of under studied samples in terms of wavelength.
Since DNA/RNA hybrid molecule is a semiconductor with direct transitions between bands, to determine optical band gap of samples, (ahν)2 is drawn against hν and data is extrapolated in linear region of high energy with horizontal axis as a = 0. Figure 5 shows this curve in order to determine direct optical band gap and the attached figure shows the results obtained from this analysis related to band gap amounts. The results indicate that the sample with largest crystallite size (V2) has the smallest band gap (1.74 eV) and the sample with smallest crystallite size (V3) has the largest band gap (2.01 eV) which can be a reason for happening a quantum limitation in these samples.
Figure 6 shows current–voltage–power curve of these samples. The results indicate that sample V2 has the highest electrical conductivity (metal–like property) while sample V3 has the lowest one (isolator–like property). This is in good agreement with optical transition behavior of layers.
Figure 6: Current–Voltage–Power curve for samples grew up in darkness.
To investigate photoconductivity of samples, the under studied samples were placed under visible light emission (halogen lamp). Figure 7 shows power–voltage curve of samples under light. As can be observed, all three samples are reacted to the light and after emission, more electrical current passed through samples. This is an expected event due to producing electron – hole pairs in layers as a result of optical photon emission in hν > Eg. In order to compare optical sensitivity of these samples, the passed electrical current through samples in voltage of V3in darkness and under visible light emission is shown in figure 8. As can be seen, sample V2 is of highest relative change of electrical current (ILight/IDark = 11) and sample V3 is of lowest one (=3). These variations may be due to the effect of various factors such as optical absorption, band gap, crystallite size and crystalline obliquity in the investigated layer.
Figure 7: Power–Voltage curve for samples subjected to visible light.
Figure 8: Passed electrical current through investigated samples.
Practical Utilities and Useful Applications
Various advanced properties of thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructure have also been reported. For example, large surface area and high porosity are quite useful for surface chemical reactions, biochemical sensors, etc. These properties are also very attractive for practical applications. We reviewed the recent status of practical applications of thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructure. To remove the skepticism and prejudice of manufacturers, the practicability of thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructure was discussed. There are no significant problems in their production, reliability, and design ability, which are important considerations for practical applications. In addition, we introduced two examples of our recent practical applications: DNA/RNA nanorod arrays for SERS and low–reflectivity wire–grid polarizers. Both products are currently available on the market. Even prior to the recent advent of advanced top–down processes, shadowing growth by oblique angle deposition (OAD) has long been providing self–assembled nanostructures over much larger areas for much lower costs. In the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the development of well–controlled three–dimensional nanomorphologies such as zigzags and helixes. Much effort has been put into theoretical and numerical understanding of the growth mechanism to improve morphology. Many researchers in academia have been investigating useful properties of nanocolumnar thin films in their laboratories. However, most companies seem hesitant to introduce thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructure techniques into the factory, owing to the prejudice that the thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructure are neither durable nor reproducible. The progress in thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructure technology for practical applications is reviewed and discussed.
The thin layers of DNA/RNA hybrid molecule nanostructures were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique with various volumes of spray solution over a glassy substrate. FESEM images indicate that surface morphology of samples are dependent on the variations of solution volume and XRD spectrum of layers indicate that polycrystalline structures are grew up in preferred direction of (002). Data analysis indicates that at solution volume of 50 ml, crystallite size and crystallite defect densities are optimum and photoconductivity properties are improved. In visible light region, layers are of low optical transition and of optical band gap between 1.74–2.01 (eV) so that sample V2 has the lowest band gap among all samples. The obtained results indicate that band gap variations in these samples are controlled by crystallite size and under the effect of happening a quantum limitation. Photoconductivity results indicate that sample V2 is of highest optical sensitivity to visible light.
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